From here we try upgrading the installed system while using the running kernel of the liveCD. We use a procedure that uses the chroot command to temporarily change root to the installed / partition on the fly. Any commands issued after that point will use the applications from the installed system, and when the apt-get dist-upgrade command is issued, the packages will be installed to /dev/sda8.
Boot to the liveCD, log in as root, then open a terminal. The commands used need to be done in a precise order, so read carefully!
The first command is to ensure nothing has been automatically mounted where we don't want it. We want to be in complete control of the system, with no automated surprises getting in the way.
[root@localhost ~]# umount -a <Enter>
Next, we create a mount point directory for the installed / partition on the running system, using the mkdir command. (make directory)
[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /here <Enter>
Mount /dev/sda8 on the new mount point.
[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/sda8 /here <Enter>
From within the chroot environment we will need access to some parts of the running system, so we bind mount those parts to the otherwise empty directories of the newly mounted /dev/sda8 partition.
[root@localhost ~]# mount -o bind /dev /here/dev <Enter>
[root@localhost ~]# mount -o bind /proc /here/proc <Enter>
[root@localhost ~]# mount -o bind /sys /here/sys <Enter>
Now we actually enter the chroot environment. You will note that the prompt will change to reflect the fact that you are no longer in /root (~) of the liveCD, but rather / in the new environment.
[root@localhost ~]# chroot /here <Enter>
[root@localhost /]# <-- New prompt, indicating your new location in /
Any change of location, from this point on, will be relative to the new environment /. Any commands issued will apply to the installed partition /, not that of the liveCD.
We establish an internet connection for the chroot environment, in order to be able to do the upgrades.
[root@localhost /]# service network start <Enter>
That done, we update the package list;
[root@localhost /]# apt-get update <Enter>
then try to install any applications left out from the aborted previous upgrade.
[root@localhost /]# apt-get dist-upgrade <Enter>
Without leaving the liveCD, post your results to this stage, then wait for further instructions. Those instructions depend on your actual results.