Without a DHCP server you have to configure Linux network to the same IP range as your Win machine.
When Win does not find a DHCP option it's assigning itself an IP address (don't know the range)
Linux does not, so you have to add an IP address where the 3 first parts are the same as Windows's
The 4th number must be different.
Example 192.168.0.40 for your Win, 192.168.0.41 Linux.
For sharing files on your Linux engine, install Samba server, share the desired map and don't forget to set the properties from that map and files right.