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The basic difference between a coding language and a scripting language is that the coded languages are compiled and the scripted languages are interpreted. Naturally other differences exist, but I'm not trying to be comprehensive or complete here.
C++ is probably the most commonly used coding language in Linux. QT is the C++ toolkit for KDE, and GTK (Gimp Tool Kit-- edit: uses C
) is used for Gnome, XFCE and LXDE. These tool kits are provided as a sort of "leg-up" for coding apps for these specific DEs.
There are IDEs (Integrated Development Environments) available for QT and GTK. QT Designer and QT Creator are available in the repos for creating KDE apps, and Glade Interface Designer and Anjuta are available for creating GTK apps. For other IDEs and tools, look in Synaptic > Sections > Development.
Scripting languages come with the interpreters they need. In addition, there may be development tools available, as in IDLE and Eric for Python.
The text editor is a very commonly used tool. It can be used in both coding and scripting. There are several available in the repos.