May 21 07:45:28 localhost klogd: IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:00:01:5c:42:c0:41:08:00 SRC=22.214.171.124 DST=255.255.255.255 LEN=328 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=50583 PROTO=UDP SPT=67 DPT=68 LEN=308
If you examine the above entry:
IN=eth0 means the packet came to your computer.
The above two means the same thing, a computer with MAC address "01:5c:42:c0:41:08:00" with IP address "126.96.36.199" sent the packet to all computers in the network domain it is in. IP address of "255.255.255.255" is called a broadcast address and it means "all computers in this subnet/network segment".
Those two ports are used by dhcp server and client.
It is odd getting dhcp packets from the internet if you are behing a NAT(ed) router(most routers are).
You getting them suggests either you are connected directly to the internet and the packet came from your ISP or you are not but the router is forwarding some if not all broadcast traffic its getting from the ISP-router part of the ISP network.
There is always background traffic on the network whose purpose is to keep the network running and dhcp traffic makes part of it.The more dhcp using devices are on the network,the more background traffic will be there.
If you are connected to your ISP directly, then a bigger background traffic compared to if you are connected to a local LAN should be expected.
May 21 07:45:30 localhost klogd: IN= OUT=eth0 SRC=188.8.131.52 DST=184.108.40.206 LEN=40 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=0 DF PROTO=TCP SPT=27977 DPT=46107 WINDOW=0 RES=0x00 ACK RST URGP=0
That one says you are connected directly to the internet. The packet was generated by your computer and source IP is internet wide addressable. It also says your computer is sending traffic to the internet.If you closed all applications you think are accessing the internet before starting taking those logs then you missed atleast one.