Yea! It works! Of course, that's no surprise to you.
The results of "setup (hd0) scrolled off the screen after I quit and wouldn't scroll back. But, it was the same as what your wrote.
I understood most of what we did up to about your reply #38. I need to print everything out and study it a bit to try to clear up the fuzzy spots. If I have any questions, should I just continue this thread or is there a better way?
Can you now explain how to update the kernel or point me to an existing explanation?
You were also concerned about a statement in the fstab.
Thank you very very much. I hope you are highly paid (grin).
Yes, this line;# THE FOLLOWING LINE REVISED "OPTIONS" TO ALLOW user TO MOUNT /DEV/SDB2
/dev/sdb2 /media/pclos ext4 rw,suid,dev,exec,auto,user,async 0 0
First, being as /media
is being used by the system to automatically mount removable media, and mount points are dynamically created and removed
there, any controllable mounts you want to be user mountable should instead be in /mnt
. Then the mount options need to be slightly different also. Below would be a proper fstab entry to achieve the stated intent;/dev/sdb2 /mnt/pclos ext4 rw,user,noauto,exec,noatime 0 0
The name of the exact mountpoint directory can be anything you choose
, but it needs to actually exist
before the mount is made, or you'll just get an error message. Creation of the directory would be by the same mkdir (make directory) command
as we used to create the /mnt/here
directories earlier. Once created on a regular installation, they will remain intact and reusable
, until deliberately removed.
In Reply #38
, are you speaking of the -o bind mount commands?
In a non running / partition
, the /sys
directories are empty. Explanation of the actual use of /proc
is rather lengthy, so check here;http://tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Filesystem-Hierarchy/html/proc.html
The use of /sys
is not clearly defined, and may be different
for different distributions, but is related to /proc
in that it's only filled when the kernel is active.
To have the chroot environment
totally usable, we mount the active directories
from the running system to those on the inactive partition
, much the same as we mount a partition, but using the -o bind option
in the command. When we then do the chroot (change root) command,
the system sees the inactive partition as active, and uses the applications and file system that are available on that partition when any command is executed.
directory is included to be sure all the hardware devices are recognized the same in both environments
Upgrading a kernel is just a matter of selecting one in Synaptic
, and making it for installation
. A kernel-devel
package will automatically be added, then click Apply
as with any other upgrade, or application installation. The new kernel
will become the default kernel
as part of the process, so when you boot the next time, using the same boot option as before
, it will be the new kernel
that is used.